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Apply for a house of multiple occupation licence (HMO)

Fire safety in HMOs

Assessing the risks and precautions

We check fire safety conditions using the most up-to-date guidance for HMOs. This includes the Fire Safety Guidance on Fire Safety Provisions published by LACORS.

We may ask you to meet other standards after we have inspected your property.  

The risks tend to vary according to the type of housing. See categories below. Download our fire safety at-a-glance checklist of requirements (PDF) [184KB]

All mains-wired smoke/heat detectors must have built-in battery back-up.

The property must meet Electrical Safety Regulations 2020 checks (opens new window) . All certificates confirming that the works have been made safe and they meet the regulations should be emailed to

Read guide for landlords: electrical safety standards in the private rented sector (opens new window) for more information.

Shared houses

Shared houses are generally smaller HMOs. They are typically two storey properties. They have a simple layout and design and the tenants are together in a group under one joint tenancy. Living arrangements will be like a single household.  

You need a Grade D LD2 system conforming to BS:5839 Part 6 (2019). This will involve:

  • a smoke alarm on each communal hallway/landing and all communal risk rooms 
  • a heat alarm in the kitchen 
  • smoke and heat alarms that are mains wired and link to a sound alarm

Non-shared house

There is generally a higher fire risk linked with this category than in a shared house. In a non-shared house there are shared facilities, such as a shared kitchen. But all occupants live independently of each another on separate tenancies.

  • you need a Grade LD2/mixed system conforming to BS:5839 Part 6 (2019)
  • you need interlinked mains-wired smoke alarms in the communal hallway
  • you need a heat alarm in the kitchen
  • you'll also need smoke detection inside individual bedrooms. Smoke detection inside individual bedrooms can be powered by long-life batteries. It can be interlinked to all other bedroom detectors wirelessly

Battery powered detectors must be:

  • bought from a reputable source
  • installed following manufacturers' recommendations
  • routinely tested
  • tamperproof


Bedsits present the highest fire risk. Bedsits are HMOs where occupiers have cooking facilities inside their bedroom. They may share bathroom facilities.

1-2 Storeys

You will need :

  • Grade D, LD2-mixed system: mains-wired and interlinked smoke detectors on all levels and in communal risk rooms such as lounges/utilities
  • any extra communal kitchens need a mains wired and interlinked heat detector
  • individual bedrooms (with cooking equipment) need a mains-wired standalone smoke detector. They also need a mains-wired, interlinked heat detector

3+ Storeys

You will need: 

  • Grade A, LD2-mixed system: mains-wired and interlinked smoke detectors on all levels and inside communal risk rooms such as lounges/utilities
  • any extra communal kitchens need a mains-wired and interlinked heat detector. Individual bedrooms (with cooking equipment) need a mains-wired standalone smoke detector. They also need a mains-wired, interlinked heat detector
  • all smoke/heat detectors to be connected to a Grade-A fire panel. The system should be inspected and tested at 6 monthly intervals by a competent person. The tester should issue an inspection and testing certificate. All tests should be recorded in a logbook

Emergency lighting

Emergency lighting is not normally needed in small, low risk HMOs. There may be some cases where emergency lighting may be needed, for example if:

  • the escape route is complicated or long
  • there's not enough borrowed light
  • there are vulnerable occupiers.

You must maintain and test any emergency lighting annually using BS 5266: Part 1:2005.

Fire escape routes 


All doors that open to the escape route (that are required to be kept locked) shall be fitted with a type of lock that can be easily and quickly opened from the inside without the use of a key

Shared houses and non-shared houses

In a shared house, doors opening to the escape route need to be solid and of traditional construction. Panels must not be less than 3mm, and not broken or defective. Composite, hollow panel (egg-box) doors (on the escape route) are prohibited.


A 30-minute fire door must comply with BS 476: Part 22 (1987) and BS 476-31-1:1983 and BS 8214: (2016).

The fire door specifications are:

  • three x 100mm brass or steel butt hinges
  • an intumescent strip rebated into both edges and top, fitted either to the door or frame
  • 35 x 12.5mm door stops glued and screwed at 300mm centres
  • smoke seals fitted to the door or frame
  • the door must have overhead door closers capable of closing the door onto the latch
  • door closers must conform to BS EN 1154: 1997
  • all door furniture must be metal
  • the gap between door and frame must not exceed 3mm at any point

Inner rooms

Inner rooms are bedrooms that enter or exit directly into a risk room. These might be a shared lounge or kitchen. Inner rooms should be avoided where possible and ideally the outer room should not be an area of high risk.

Where inner rooms cannot be avoided, you must have extra fire safety measures, such as:

  • the inner room has access to a door or window opening onto an alternative safe escape route
  • escape windows must not be more than 4.5m above ground level, or 1.5m above the bedroom floor level 
  • escape windows must have an escape window leading directly to a place of ultimate safety. Ultimate safety is an area where tenants can escape to that is far enough from the HMO to stay safe in an emergency. It's defined as a distance at least as far as the house is tall. This could be the back of a rear garden that is longer (or as long) as the house is tall.   
  • the escape window must have an unobstructed openable area. It must be at least 0.33m² and have a minimum 450mm height and 450mm width
  • all alternative escapes must have a lock that is quickly and easily opened from inside without the use of a key
  • an automatic fire detection and warning system is in place. This will include extension of the smoke alarm/detection system into the inner room. This is to make sure the occupant is alerted to a fire in the high risk outer room
  • a FD30(S) door is fitted between the inner and outer rooms

Inner rooms due to layout and design (open plan)

This is when the main escape route (stairs) discharges through the current communal living area (risk room).

We would prefer you to have a stud wall partition with a door and frame separating staircase and risk room. This is create a protected escape route (corridor).

Under stairs and cupboards

  • high risk items such as whitegoods under the stairs should be moved into a communal risk room. If this is not practical, the stairs should be underdrawn to give 30 minutes' fire resistance
  • the door to the under stairs cupboard should be a solid door. It should not be fitted with smoke brushes or intumescent strips. We'll look at where the nearest smoke detectors are and their ability to sound in an emergency

Whitegoods and storage on escape routes

  • escape routes should not contain any sources of ignition. Appliances such as tumble driers and washing machines should be moved into risk rooms, unless this is not practical
  • appliances are commonly left on overnight to take advantage of lower energy tariffs. This is the most dangerous time for a fire to start
  • avoid the storage of other electrical and flammable items